Hyperspectral infrared (IR) sounders, or advanced IR sounders, such as the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on Aqua, the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on Metop series, and the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) on Suomi-NPP (SNPP) and Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) series, provide high vertical resolution atmospheric sounding information that can improve the forecast skill in numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. However, those high quality measurements are only available in sun synchronous orbits. Enabling such measurements in geostationary (GEO) orbits would greatly enhance the current forecast capability. For more details about GEO hyperspectral IR sounders, please refer to the overview by Revercomb and Menzel 2019, the Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics paper by William Smith et al. (2009), and the SPIE Asia Pacific Remote Sensing presentation by Revercomb et al. 2018, which also includes some initial calibration results from the Geostationary Interferometric IR Sounder (GIIRS).
Hank Revercomb, Dave Tobin, Bob Knuteson, Jon Gero, Joe Taylor, Bill Smith, Michelle Feltz, Lei DING, Xuan Feng , and Jun YANG, 2018: Hyperspectral Infrared Sounding from Geostationary Orbit, SPIE Asia Pacific Remote Sensing, Honolulu, Hawaii, 24-26 September 2018. (link)
Smith Sr., W. L., Revercomb, H., Bingham, G., Larar, A., Huang, H., Zhou, D., Li, J., Liu, X., and Kireev, S.: Technical Note: Evolution, current capabilities, and future advance in satellite nadir viewing ultra-spectral IR sounding of the lower atmosphere, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 5563-5574, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-9-5563-2009, 2009. (link)
Why is GEO Hyperspectral IR sounder is needed?
- Information on water vapor transportation both horizontally and vertically (especially in the boundary layer) is key to forecasting severe storms (deep convective, tornadic storms) over continental US (CONUS). Only advanced sounding mission from geostationary (GEO) orbit can provide such needed high temporal and high spatial resolution 4-D moisture and dynamic motion information.
- Moisture and wind observations are critical for storm prediction through assimilating into regional or storm scale NWP models over CONUS.
What is the current status?
- WMO vision for global observing systems in 2025: at least 6 geostationary satellites with advanced imager and hyperspectral IR sounder.
- EUMETSAT will have advanced IR sounders (IRS) in GEO orbit in 2023 time frame.
- Japan is planning GEO IR sounder for Himawari-8/-9 follow-on.
- China already has advanced IR sounder (GIIRS/FY-4A) in GEO orbit in 2016;
- U.S. has the current GOES Sounder, but it is the old generation sounder, and the same advanced GEO IR sounder capability is needed to form the global high temporal resolution moisture and motion observing system for weather and climate service.
ABI is not a sounder!
- There is little vertical information available from ABI measurements, although it can be used to continue the current GOES Sounder legacy atmospheric profile (LAP) products
Schmit, T. J., J. Li, J. J. Gurka, M. D. Goldberg, K. Schrab, Jinlong Li, and W. Feltz, 2008: The GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager and the continuation of current GOES sounder products, J. of Appl. Meteorol. and Climatology, 47, 2696 – 2711. (link)
Wang, F., J. Li, T. J. Schmit, and Steven A. Ackerman, 2007: Trade-off studies of a hyperspectral infrared sounder on a geostationary satellite. Applied Optics., 46, 200 – 209. (link)
- ABI provides added value on atmospheric water vapor information for storm forecast, and there will be more impact from GEO advanced IR sounder
Wang, Pei, Jun Li, Bing Lu, Timothy J. Schmit, Jiazhen Lu, Yong-Keun Lee, Jinlong Li, and Zhiquan Liu, 2018: Impact of moisture information from Advanced Himawari Imager measurements on heavy precipitation forecasts in a regional NWP model, Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres, 123, 6022 – 6038. (link).
If you have any question about this website, please contact Tim Schmit.