Proxy data demonstration
The added value of hyperspectral IR sounders have been demonstrated in many studies using proxy data. Menzel et al 2018 summarized the history and discussed the applications of of satellite based sounders, including hyperspectral IR sounders. Listed below are some studies of hyperspectral IR sounders using proxy data.
2018: Satellite-Based Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Development and Applications. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 99, 583–603, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-16-0293.1,
Tropical cyclone forecast improvement (Radiances or Retrievals):
With its high spectral resolution, GEO hyperspectral IR sounders will have the resolving power to better characterize the vertical changes in atmosphere, as demonstrated by many studies with polar orbiting satellites.
Wang Pei, Jun Li, Z. Li, A. H. N. Lim, Jinlong Li, T. J. Schmit, and M. D. Goldberg, 2017: The Impact of Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) Cloud-Cleared Radiances on Hurricane Joaquin (2015) and Matthew (2016) Forecasts, Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres, 122, DOI: 10.1002/2017JD027515. (link)
Li, Jun, P. Wang, H. Han, J. Li, and J. Zheng, 2016: On the assimilation of satellite sounder data in cloudy skies in the numerical weather prediction models, Journal of Meteorological Research. 30, 169-182.(link)
Wang, P., Jun Li, M. Goldberg, T. J. Schmit, et al., 2015: Assimilation of thermodynamic information from advanced IR sounders under partially cloudy skies for regional NWP, Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmosphere, 120, doi:10.1002/ 2014JD022976. (link)
Wang, Pei, Jun Li, Jinlong Li, Zhenglong Li, Timothy J. Schmit, and Wenguang Bai, 2014: Advanced infrared sounder subpixel cloud detection with imagers and its impact on radiance assimilation in NWP, Geophysical Research Letters, 41, 1773 – 1780. (link)
Zheng, J., Jun Li, T. J. Schmit, Jinlong Li, and Z. Liu, 2015: The impact of AIRS atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles on hurricane forecasts: Ike (2008) and Irene (2011). Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, 32, 319 – 335 . (link)
Liu, H., and J. Li, 2010: An improved in forecasting rapid intensification of Typhoon Sinlaku (2008) using clear-sky full spatial resolution advanced IR soundings, J. Appl. Meteorol. and Cli., 49, 821 – 827. (link)
Li, J., H. Liu, 2009: Improved Hurricane Track and Intensity Forecast Using Single Field-of-View Advanced IR Sounding Measurements, Geophysical Research Letters, 36, L11813, doi:10.1029/2009GL038285. (link)
Short-term forecasting and nowcasting applications (AIRS, IASI, ABI and AHI)
The unique advantage of GEO, the high temporal resolution, allows nearly continuous observation of the atmosphere and earth surface, providing critically important information for short-term forecasting and nowcasting applications (i.e. local severe storms).
Feng, J., Huang, Y., and Qu, Z.: A simulation-experiment-based assessment of retrievals of above-cloud temperature and water vapor using a hyperspectral infrared sounder, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5717–5734, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-14-5717-2021, 2021.
Feng, J., Huang, Y., and Qu, Z.: An observing system simulation experiment (OSSE)-based assessment of the retrieval of above-cloud temperature and water vapor using hyperspectral infrared sounder, Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss. [preprint], https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-2020-518, 2021.
2017: Satellite Radiance Data Assimilation within the Hourly Updated Rapid Refresh. Wea. Forecasting, 32, 1273–1287, https://doi.org/10.1175/WAF-D-16-0215.1,
2017: Radiance Preprocessing for Assimilation in the Hourly Updating Rapid Refresh Mesoscale Model: A Study Using AIRS Data. Wea. Forecasting, 32, 1781–1800, https://doi.org/10.1175/WAF-D-17-0028.1,
Lee, Yong-Keun, Jun Li, Zhenglong Li, and Tim Schmit, 2017: Atmospheric temporal variations in the pre-landfall environment of Typhoon Nangka (2015) observed by the Himawari-8 AHI, Asia-Pacific Journal of Atmospheric Sciences. DOI:10.1007/s13143-017-0046-z. (link)
Bojkov, Bojan R., 2017: Product plans and science applications for MTG-IRS, ECMWF/EUMETSAT Workshop on Assimilation of Hyper-spectral Geostationary Satellite Observations, Reading, 22-25 May 2017. (link)
Li, J., C.-Y. Liu, P. Zhang, and T. J. Schmit, 2012: Applications of Full Spatial Resolution Space-Based Advanced Infrared Soundings in the Preconvection Environment, Weather and Forecasting, 27, 515 – 524. (link)
- Very useful LAP products with high temporal and spatial resolutions;
- Temporal and spatial gradients are more important;
- Current product has only three layers, more vertical layers are needed, which means GEO advanced IR sounder data are needed
Improved surface skin and boundary temperature
Often the timing and location of severe convective storms depends on the location and timing of the erosion of the capping temperature inversion in the lower troposphere. Smith et al. (2019) have shown that the combination of polar hyperspectral IR sounder information with surface and RAP forecast data can resolve the vertical details of this capping inversion very well. More information about this study can be found at here. The high temporal resolution of geostationary hyperspectral sounding data will help observe and forecast the time change and location of this capping inversion, and diagnose where and when tornadic storms will develop.
Smith, Willaim L., E. Weisz, J. Gerth, Anthony DiNorscia, J. McNabb , M. Shao, M. Dutter, and J. Gagan, 2019:Developing Meteorological Forecast Products in Near Real-time from Hyperspectral Sounder Radiances, Ninth Conference on Transition of Research to Operations, 99th AMS Annual Meeting, Phoenix, AZ, 6-10 January, 2019. (link)
Atmospheric motion vector (AMV)
The AMV is a perfect example to take good advantage of the high temporal resolution from GEO. AMV has been a legacy product of the GOES series of satellites, and is a baseline product of GOES-R series. The future GEO hyperspectral IR sounder will enhance the current AMV products with much improved vertical resolution. AMV provides important wind information about troposphere, especially in area where conventional observations are limited. Below are several examples of the benefits of assimilating GEO AMVs into NWP models.
2017: Assimilation of High-Resolution Satellite-Derived Atmospheric Motion Vectors: Impact on HWRF Forecasts of Tropical Cyclone Track and Intensity. Mon. Wea. Rev., 145, 1107–1125, https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-16-0229.1,
Le-Marshall, John, et al. “Operational Generation and Assimilation of Himawari-8 Atmospheric Motion Vectors” Proceedings for the 13th International Winds Workshop, 27 June – 1 July 2016, Monterey, California, USA. (link)
Santek, D., Nebuda, S., and Stettner, D., 2014: Feature-tracked winds from moisture fields derived from AIRS sounding retrievals. International Winds Workshop, 12th, Copenhagen, Denmark, 15-20 June 2014. EUMETSAT, Darmstadt, Germany, 2014. (link)